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Citing Sources

This guide is intended to be a quick reference only. The examples given are consistent with the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition. If you still have questions about citations when using the Chicago style, please consult your instructor.

The Basics

Notes/Bibliography system

The Notes, depending on the instructor’s preference, could be placed at the bottom of the page, as footnotes, or at the end of the paper on a separate page, as endnotes. For either method, the format is the same. The first line of each note should be indented by one half inch, and should be single spaced, with a blank space between each note. All notes should begin with the number that corresponds to the identifying number used in the text.

The Bibliography should be placed at the end of the paper, and should include all sources referred to in the notes. The entries should be in alphabetical order by the author’s last name, or by title if there is no author. Main titles should be italicized. The first line of each entry should be flush with the left margin, and each additional line should be indented by one-half inch. The page should be single spaced with a blank line between entries.

Basic format of a note and a bibliography entry using the Chicago style

Endnote or footnote Corresponding bibliographic entry
     1. Firstname Lastname, Title of Book (Place of  publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Examples of Citations for Sources Using the Chicago Style

Type of resource Example note Example of bibliography entry
Book or exhibition catalog -- single author      1. Eleanor Heartney, Roxy Paine. (Munich: Prestel, 2009), 78.

Heartney, Eleanor. Roxy Paine. Munich: Prestel, 2009.


Article from online database      2. Bonnie Kemske, “The Beauty of Imperfection,” Ceramic Review, May/June 2007, 30, (August 15, 2011).

Kemske, Bonnie. "The Beauty of Imperfection." Ceramic Review, May/June 2007: 30-3. (August 15, 2011).

Original work of art      9. Lee Krasner, Celebration, oil on canvas, 1960, Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH.

Krasner, Lee. Celebration. Oil on canvas.1960. Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH.

Article or essay from a book      4. Wendy Holmes, “Decoding Collage: Signs and Surfaces,” In Collage: Critical Views, ed. Katherine Hoffman (Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1989), 197.

Holmes, Wendy. “Decoding Collage: Signs and Surfaces.” In Collage: Critical Views, edited by Katherine Hoffman, 193-212.  Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Research Press, 1989.